Who Is the Scientist Responsible for Explaining the Universal Law of Gravity

The Indian mathematician and astronomer Brahmagupta (c. 598 – c. 668 AD) first described gravity as a force of attraction and used the term «gurutvākarṣaṇam (गुरुत्वाकर्षणम्)», to describe it:[9][10][11][12] Theoretical models such as string theory and loop quantum gravity are current candidates for a possible «theory of everything». The Principia quickly sold out and inspired Newton to a second edition in 1713. [53] [54] The treatise inspired the French philosopher Voltaire to write his own book in 1738, in which he explained some aspects of it, which contributed to the popularization of Newton`s theory. [55] In 1755, the Prussian philosopher Immanuel Kant published a cosmological manuscript based on Newtonian principles, in which he developed the fog hypothesis. [56] In 1788, Joseph-Louis Lagrange introduced an improved formulation of classical mechanics. Neither version takes into account relativistic effects, as these have not yet been discovered. Nevertheless, Newton`s theory is considered exceptionally accurate within the limits of weak gravitational fields and low velocities. «This test is just the beginning,» Lu said. The researchers plan to use a new generation of high-performance instruments to perform more gravity tests around black holes.

For example, they will keep an eye on SO-2 to see if its orbit goes as Einstein would have predicted, or if it takes a different path around Sagittarius A*, suggesting an alternative model of gravity. In the early 17th century, Galileo Galilei found that all objects tend to accelerate equally in free fall. In 1632, he introduced the basic principle of relativity. The existence of the gravitational constant has been confirmed by various researchers since the mid-17th century. In the nineteenth century, Isaac Newton researched and helped formulate his law of universal gravitation. Newton`s classical mechanics was replaced in the early 20th century when Einstein developed the theory of special and general relativity. The force carrier of gravity remains an aberration in search of a theory of everything for which different models of quantum gravity are candidates. General relativity has been very successful because its predictions (which were not required by the old theories of gravity) have been regularly confirmed.

For example: Sir Isaac Newton not only discovered the laws of gravity, but was also responsible for developing many principles of visible light and the laws of motion and contributed to calculation. Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 †– 31 March 1727) was an English mathematician, physicist and astronomer. Precisely because we understand gravity, we understand the dark matter (and dark energy) that manifests in cosmic microwave background spectra and its effects on gravitational lensing (or cosmological expansion behavior). [ galileospendulum.org/2012/02/17/the-genome-of-the-universe/ ] In the late 19th century, many tried to combine Newton`s law of force with established laws of electrodynamics (such as those of Wilhelm Eduard Weber, Carl Friedrich Gauss and Bernhard Riemann) to explain Mercury`s perial recession. Maurice Lévy achieved this in 1890 by combining the laws of Weber and Riemann, according to which the speed of gravity is equal to the speed of light. In another attempt, Paul Gerber (1898) succeeded in deriving the correct formula for perihelion shift (which was identical to the formula later used by Albert Einstein). These assumptions were rejected because of the outdated laws on which they were based and replaced by those of James Clerk Maxwell. [45] Albert Einstein developed his revolutionary theory of relativity in papers published in 1905 and 1915; these explain Mercury`s Perihelpräzession.

[59] In 1914, Gunnar Nordström attempted to unite gravity and electromagnetism in his theory of five-dimensional gravity. General relativity was proven in 1919 when Arthur Eddington observed a gravitational lens around a solar eclipse that matched Einstein`s equations. This led to Einstein`s theory replacing Newtonian physics. [62] Subsequently, German mathematician Theodor Kaluza promoted the idea of general relativity with a fifth dimension, to which Swedish physicist Oskar Klein gave a possible model of quantum gravity and the potential theory of everything in a prototypical string theory in 1921. where the symbol ∝ {displaystyle propto } means «is proportional to». To turn this into an equilateral formula or equation, there had to be a multiplication factor or constant that would give the correct gravity regardless of the value of the masses or the distance between them (the gravitational constant). Newton would need an exact measurement of this constant to prove his inverse-square law. It was first performed by Henry Cavendish in 1797. A few decades after the discovery of general relativity, it was recognized that it cannot be the complete theory of gravity because it is incompatible with quantum mechanics.

[76] It was later understood that it is possible to describe gravity in the context of quantum field theory like other fundamental forces. In this context, gravitational attraction is created by the exchange of virtual gravitons, just as the electromagnetic force is created by the exchange of virtual photons. [77] [78] This reproduces general relativity in the classical boundary, but only at the linearized level, and postulates that the applicability conditions of Ehrenfest`s theorem are valid, which is not always the case. Moreover, this approach fails at short distances of the order of the Planck length. [76] Between 1911 and 1915, Einstein developed the idea that gravity is equivalent to acceleration, originally called the equivalence principle, in his theory of general relativity, which merges the three dimensions of space and the unique dimension of time into the four-dimensional fabric of space-time. However, it does not combine gravity with quanta – individual energy particles that Einstein himself postulated in 1905. Albert Einstein can explain many things, but perhaps not black holes. Scientists believe that in the depths of these massive celestial objects, the laws of the universe fold in on themselves and that the elegant model of gravity laid out in Einstein`s theory of general relativity collapses. In 1900, Hendrik Lorentz tried to explain gravity based on his theory of ether and Maxwell`s equations. Like Ottaviano Fabrizio Mossotti and Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner, he assumed that the attraction of particles of opposite charge is stronger than the repulsion of equally charged particles.

The resulting net force is exactly what is called universal gravity, where the speed of gravity is that of light. Lorentz calculated that Mercury`s perihelion advance value was far too low. [60] I have concluded that the forces that hold the planets in their spheres must be reciprocal as squares of their distances from the centers around which they revolve; compare the force needed to keep the moon in its sphere with gravity on the Earth`s surface; and almost found them answer. But Newton`s vision of gravity didn`t work for some things, like Mercury`s particular orbit around the sun. The orbits of the planets change over time, and Mercury`s orbit has moved faster than Newton had predicted. Based on the principle of relativity, Henri Poincaré (1905, 1906), Hermann Minkowski (1908) and Arnold Sommerfeld (1910) attempted to modify Newton`s theory and establish an invariant Lorentz gravitational law in which the speed of gravity is that of light. As in Lorentz`s model, Mercury`s perihelion thrust value was far too low. Unable to pay his tuition, Newton cleaned up in exchange for free tuition fees at Cambridge University.[69] Curious, he tried many experiments, especially with white light and alchemy. Unfortunately, when the plague broke out in England, Isaac had to interrupt his studies and return to his mother for a while. During this time, he was able to deepen his knowledge of mathematics, optics and physics. When Isaac resumed his studies, he made a name for himself at university: he became a professor of mathematics and made many fundamental discoveries. Above all, he formulated the law of universal gravitation.

The theory of relativity was able to explain the behavior of star systems, galaxies and superclusters and is part of what led to the theory of dark matter. So yes. And the three fundamental forces of electromagnetism and strong and weak nuclear forces interact in a way that is explained by quantum theory. How these interact with gravity remains a mystery, and finding the answer will give us a theory of everything. Now you can either refer to the so-called nuclear theory, where you have the Standard Model for particles in combination with the theory of general relativity (also called semi-classical approximation), in which case gravity affects particles across space-time, or you can also quantify gravity as a field, with a graviton, and make the quantum vacuum. Both approximations collapse when the force of gravity becomes large. When mercury is poured into a container and a hundred-pound stone is placed on it, the stone floats on the surface and cannot push, pierce or separate the liquid. If we remove the weight of a hundred pounds and put a scruple of gold, it will not float, but will sink to the ground on its own. Therefore, it is undeniable that the severity of a substance does not depend on the amount of its weight, but on its nature. [8] If Einstein were right, the black hole would distort space and time in a way that would expand the wavelength of light from S0-2.